Sarah E. Turner
Postdoctoral Research Fellow
Department of Anthropology
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Turner, Sarah E, Fedigan, Linda M., Matthews, H. Damon and Nakamichi, Masayuki (2012) Disability, compensatory behavior and innovation in free-ranging adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). American Journal of Primatology. 74, 788-803.
Turner, Sarah E., Fedigan, Linda M., Nakamichi, Masayuki, Matthews, H. Damon, McKenna, Katie, Nobuhara, Hisami, Nobuhara, Toshikazu, Shimizu, Keiko. (2010) Birth in free-ranging Macaca fuscata. International Journal of Primatology. 31: 15-37.
Matthews, H. Damon and Turner, Sarah E. (2009) Of mongooses and mitigation: Ecological analogues to geoengineering. Environmental Research Letters. 4, 045105 (9pp) doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/4/4/045105
Turner, Sarah E., Fedigan, Linda M., Nobuhara, Hisami, Nobuhara, Toshikazu, Matthews, H. Damon, Nakamichi, Masayuki. (2008) Monkeys with disabilities: Prevalence and severity of congenital limb malformations in Macaca fuscata on Awaji Island. Primates. 49, 223-226.
Turner, Sarah E., Gould, Lisa and Duffus, David A. (2005) Maternal behavior and infant congenital limb malformation in a free-ranging group of Macaca fuscata on Awaji Island, Japan. International Journal of Primatology. 26(6), 1435-1457.
Book chapters and contributions to collective works
Turner, Sarah E. and Fedigan, Linda M. (Submitted) Birth (Primates). In: Encyclopedia of Human Sexuality, Patricia Whelehan and Anne Bolin (eds). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley Blackwell Press.
Turner, Nancy J. and Turner, Sarah E. (2003) Food, forage and medicinal resources of forests, Section 5.3.3. In: Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), John Owens (ed). EOLSS Publishers, Oxford, UK [http://www.eolss.net].
Turner, Nancy J. and Turner, Sarah E. (2001) Poisonous Plants. In: Plant Sciences Encyclopedia,Macmillan Reference, New York. 3, 170-175.
Turner, Sarah E. (2012) Ribbon’s Way. Sono Nis Press, Winlaw B.C. ISBN 978-1-55039-200-5. A science-based photographic true story about Ribbon, a young Japanese monkey with physical disabilities.
Turner, Sarah E. (2010) The Littlest Monkey. Sono Nis Press, Winlaw B.C. ISBN 978-1-55039-174-7. A science-based photographic storybook for children about Japanese macaque siblings growing up at the Awajishima Monkey Center in Japan.
Turner, Sarah E. 2010. Consequences of congenital limb malformations and disability in adult female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) [dissertation]. Supervisor: Linda M. Fedigan. Calgary (AB): University of Calgary. 229 p
Abstract: The potential for physical impairment is a feature of the natural history of all animals, yet little is known about how disabilities affect nonhuman primates. In this dissertation, I examine the behavioural and physiological consequences of congenital limb malformations (CLMs) for adult females in a unique group of free-ranging Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) at the Awajishima Monkey Center (AMC), Japan. In a census taken in 2004, I found that 17.1% of individuals had CLMs. Including previously published demographic data, I found that from 1969 to 2007, 16.1% of infants at AMC were born with CLMs, and many monkeys with even very extensive CLMs survive to adulthood and reproduce. I analyzed behavioural and physiological data on 23 adult females, from 558 30-minute randomly ordered, continuous time focal animal follows and 569 fecal samples, collected over 3 birth seasons (May—August 2005, 2006 and 2007). Fecal samples were stored at –20 C and cortisol analysis was conducted by Dr. Keiko Shimizu at the Kyoto University Primate Research Institute. I also collected ad libitum data, including detailed observations on two births that occurred in 2006. Overall, I found that focal animals with CLMs were able to compensate with behavioural flexibility and innovation, including modifying activity budgets to include more rest and less social activity, employing individual styles of locomotion, and utilizing the mouth and a unique two-hand pinch method in grooming. Notably, disabled monkeys did not differ from controls by a number of measures, including time spent feeding and foraging, speed of locomotion, canopy usage, and stress, as measured through fecal cortisol levels. The only consistent predictor of fecal cortisol concentrations was relative social dominance, such that subordinate females had higher cortisol than dominant females. I found little evidence for conspecific care directed towards disabled adult females. However there was also little evidence for social selection against disability. The differences in social behaviour appeared to be primarily driven by the disabled monkeys themselves, in the context of a group that showed an overall undifferentiated response to disabled and nondisabled adult females, tolerance that helped facilitate the survival of disabled monkeys at AMC.
Turner, Sarah E. 2003. Behavioural aspects of maternal investment and disability in mother and infant Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) with congenital limb malformations [Master's thesis]. Supervisor: Lisa Gould. Victoria (BC): University of Victoria. 201 p. Available from: ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, MI; MQ 85243